Another end-of-life option used globally is incineration. In certain areas, waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities are used to burn municipal solid waste (MSW) or refuse derived fuel (RDF). Various types of waste combustors exist including mass burn moving grate, mass burn fixed grate, RDF fluidized bed systems, and rotary kilns.

WTE's exist throughout the United States. In Europe, Germany incinerates the most municipal solid waste with Denmark, Luxembourg and Switzerland in close 2nd, 3rd, and 4th, respectively.



To help our customers, partners & stakeholders understand the energy valve of Ingeo in WTE facilities, NatureWorks LLC conducted testing at the optimum incineration temperature of approximately 1100°C (2000°F).

Comparing Energy Values
Material BTU/lb
Fuel Oil 20,900
HDPE 18,700
Rubber & Leather 12,800
PET 10,900
Wyoming Coal 9,600
Textiles 9,400
INGEO 8,368
Newspaper 8,000
Wood 7,300
Corrugated Boxes (paper) 7,000
Average MSW 5,900
Yard Waste 2,900
Food Waste 2,900
         Ingeo's heat content was determined to be 8,368 Btu/lb, which is higher then cellulosic-based materials & suitable for incineration.


Further analysis showed no volatiles & low residue when burning Ingeo.

Elemental Analysis
Element % Avg.
Carbon 50.05
Hydrogren 5.71
Oxygen 45.07
Nitrogen 0.04
Sulfur 0.30
Phosphorus ND (<0.10)
Chlorine ND (<0.05)
Decomposition Products
Compounds mg/g
Carbon Monoxide ND (<0.1)
Carbon Dioxide 2020
Water >260
Volatiles ND (<0.001)
Semivolatiles ND (<0.01)
Residue 0.01